Closure hole in the eardrum
A hole in the eardrum (eardrum perforation) can be closed in several ways, depending on the size and cause of the hole. Here are some possible treatment methods:
- Conservative treatment: small holes in the eardrum can often close on their own. In such cases, the doctor may recommend conservative treatment, in which the patient keeps the ear dry and does not allow foreign objects or water to enter the ear. The doctor may also prescribe ear drops to prevent infection and help the healing process.
- Surgical "repair": for larger holes or holes that do not heal on their own, surgical "repair" may be necessary. This procedure is called a tympanoplasty and can be performed under local or general anesthesia. During surgery, the hole in the eardrum is covered with a tissue patch or artificial material to close it. In some cases, reconstruction of the ossicles may also be necessary.
- tympanostomy tubes: For recurrent middle ear infections or fluid buildup in the middle ear, the doctor may insert tympanostomy tubes. These small tubes are inserted into the eardrum to improve ventilation of the middle ear and drain fluid buildup. In some cases, the hole in the eardrum may be closed while the tubes are being inserted.
It is important to see an ear, nose and throat doctor to determine the best treatment option for a hole in the eardrum. Each case is unique, and the physician will consider the patient's individual circumstances to recommend the appropriate treatment.
Restoration of the ossicular chain
Defective ossicles in the middle ear can be repaired or replaced through surgery. This procedure is called ossiculoplasty and can include several techniques:
- Ossicular reconstruction: in this method, the defective or damaged ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) are removed and replaced with artificial prostheses or implants. These prostheses can be made of different materials such as titanium, ceramic or plastic. The surgeon attaches the prostheses to the remaining parts of the ossicles or to the petrous bone in the middle ear to restore sound transmission.
- Tympanoplasty with ossicular reconstruction: in some cases, ossiculoplasty may be combined with tympanoplasty. In a tympanoplasty, the eardrum is repaired or replaced while the defective ossicles are reconstructed. This combined procedure may be necessary when both the eardrum and ossicles are damaged.
- Use of autologous tissue
It is important to see an otolaryngologist to determine the best treatment option for defective ossicles in the middle ear. The physician will consider the patient's individual circumstances and recommend the appropriate technique to improve hearing.